KINH NIỆM XỨ (Satipatthàna sutta)
Trích từ Kinh Trung Bộ - Majjhima Nikàya Tập I, Kinh 10
Ḥa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
 

TMajjhima Nikaya 10
Satipatthana Sutta
The Four Arousings of Mindfulness
The Four frames of reference
The Four foundations of mindfulness.

Translated by Bhikkhu Thanissaro
For free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma

 


KINH NIỆM XỨ
Satipatthana Sutta
1) Thân
2) Thọ
3) Tâm
4) Pháp

http:///kinhniemxu.htm

The Four frames of reference
Ạ  Body
B. Feelings
C. Mind
D. Mental Qualities
 

http://www/mn.010.than.html
http://wings_b.htm


 


The Four foundations of mindfulness.

The Four Arousings of Mindfulness
 

I. The Contemplation of the Body
II. The Contemplation of Feeling
III. The Contemplation of Consciousness
IV. The Contemplation of Mental Objects

http://www._Translation.htm
http://www.btthanasutta.html
http://wwwngessangha/SATIPAT.html
http://www.midamericadharma.org/
 

 

youtube 1 ** YouTube 1 Vietnamese **
The Four frames of reference

I have heard that on one occasion the Blessed One was staying in the Kuru country. Now there is a town of the Kurus called Kammasadhamma. There the Blessed One addressed the monks, "Monks."

"Venerable sir," the monks replied.

The Blessed One said this: "This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and distress, for the attainment of the right method, and for the realization of Unbinding -- in other words, the four frames of reference. Which four?

"There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself -- ardent, alert, and mindful -- putting aside greed and distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings...mind...mental qualities in and of themselves -- ardent, alert, and mindful -- putting aside greed and distress with reference to the world.

KINH NIỆM XỨ
Như vầy tôi nghe.
Một thời Thế Tôn ở xứ Kuru (Câu-lâu), Kammassadhamma (kiềm-ma sắt đàm) là đô thị của xứ Kuru. Rồi Thế Tôn gọi các Tỷ-kheo:

-- Này các Tỷ-kheo.

Các Tỷ-kheo vâng đáp Thế Tôn:

-- Bạch Thế Tôn.

Thế Tôn thuyết như sau:

-- Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây là con đường độc nhất đưa đến thanh tịnh cho chúng sanh, vượt khỏi sầu năo, diệt trừ khổ ưu, thành tựu chánh trí, chứng ngộ Niết-bàn. Đó là Bốn Niệm xứ. Thế nào là bốn?

Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân, nhiệt tâm, tỉnh giác, chánh niệm để chế ngự tham ưu ở đời; sống quán thọ trên các thọ, nhiệt tâm, tỉnh giác, chánh niệm để chế ngự tham ưu ở đời; sống quán tâm trên tâm, nhiệt tâm, tỉnh giác, chánh niệm để chế ngự tham ưu ở đời; sống quán pháp trên các pháp, nhiệt tâm, tỉnh giác, chánh niệm để chế ngự tham ưu ở đời.
 

(A. Body)
"And how does a monk remain focused on the body in and of itself?
[1] "There is the case where a monk -- having gone to the wilderness, to the shade of a tree, or to an empty building -- sits down folding his legs crosswise, holding his body erect and setting mindfulness to the fore [lit: the front of the chest]. Always mindful, he breathes in; mindful he breathes out.

"Breathing in long, he discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out long, he discerns that he is breathing out long. Or breathing in short, he discerns that he is breathing in short; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short.

He trains himself to breathe in sensitive to the entire body and to breathe out sensitive to the entire body. He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication.

Just as a skilled turner or his apprentice, when making a long turn, discerns that he is making a long turn, or when making a short turn discerns that he is making a short turn; in the same way the monk, when breathing in long, discerns that he is breathing in long; or breathing out short, he discerns that he is breathing out short...He trains himself to breathe in calming bodily fabrication, and to breathe out calming bodily fabrication.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or externally on the body in and of itself, or both internally and externally on the body in and of itself.

Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to the body.

Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.
 

(Quán thân)

Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây, Tỷ-kheo đi đến khu rừng, đi đến gốc cây, hay đi đến ngôi nhà trống, và ngồi kiết già, lưng thẳng và an trú chánh niệm trước mặt. Tỉnh giác, vị ấy thở vô; tỉnh giác, vị ấy thở ra.

Thở vô dài, vị ấy tuệ tri: "Tôi thở vô dài"; hay thở ra dài, vị ấy tuệ tri: "Tôi thở ra dài"; hay thở vô ngắn, vị ấy tuệ tri: "Tôi thở vô ngắn"; hay thở ra ngắn, vị ấy tuệ tri: "Tôi thở ra ngắn". "Cảm giác toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở vô", vị ấy tập; "Cảm giác toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở ra", vị ấy tập; "An tịnh toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở vô", vị ấy tập; "An tịnh toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở ra", vị ấy tập.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, như người thợ quay hay học tṛ người thợ quay thiện xảo khi quay dài, tuệ tri: "Tôi quay dài" hay khi quay ngắn, tuệ tri: "Tôi quay ngắn". Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo thở vô dài, tuệ tri: "Tôi thở vô dài"; hay thở ra dài, tuệ tri: "Tôi thở ra dài"; hay thở vô ngắn, tuệ tri: "Tôi thở vô ngắn"; hay thở ra ngắn, tuệ tri: "Tôi thở ra ngắn". "Cảm giác toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở vô", vị ấy tập; "Cảm giác toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở ra", vị ấy tập; "An tịnh toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở vô", vị ấy tập; "An tịnh toàn thân, tôi sẽ thở ra", vị ấy tập.

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên cả nội thân, ngoại thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân.

"Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy không nương tựa, không chấp trước vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.



 

[2] "Furthermore, when walking, the monk discerns that he is walking. When standing, he discerns that he is standing. When sitting, he discerns that he is sitting. When lying down, he discerns that he is lying down. Or however his body is disposed, that is how he discerns it.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.


 
[2]Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo đi, tuệ tri: "Tôi đi", hay đứng, tuệ tri: "Tôi đứng", hay ngồi, tuệ tri: "Tôi ngồi", hay nằm, tuệ tri: "Tôi nằm". Thân thể được sử dụng như thế nào, vị ấy tuệ tri thân như thế ấy.

Vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay vị ấy sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.
 


 

[3] "Furthermore, when going forward and returning, he makes himself fully alert; when looking toward and looking away...when bending and extending his limbs...when carrying his outer cloak, his upper robe and his bowl...when eating, drinking, chewing, and savoring...when urinating and defecating...when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and remaining silent, he makes himself fully alert.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.




 
[3]Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo, khi bước tới bước lui, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi ngó tới ngó lui, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi co tay, khi duỗi tay, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi mang áo Sanghati (Tăng già lê), mang bát, mang y, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi ăn, uống, nhai, nếm, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi đại tiện, tiểu tiện, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm; khi đi, đứng, ngồi, ngủ, thức, nói, im lặng, biết rơ việc ḿnh đang làm.

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên cả nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.






 
[4] "Furthermore...just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain -- wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice -- and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, 'This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice,' in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: 'In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.
[4]Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo quán sát thân này, dưới từ bàn chân trở lên, trên cho đến đảnh tóc, bao bọc bởi da và chứa đầy những vật bất tịnh sai biệt. Trong thân này: "Đây là tóc, lông, móng, răng, da, thịt, gân, xương, thận, tủy, tim, gan, hoành cách mô, lá lách, phổi, ruột, màng ruột, bụng, phân, mật, đàm (niêm dịch), mủ, máu, mồ hôi, mỡ, nước mắt, mỡ da, nước miếng, nước mủ, nước ở khớp xương, nước tiểu". Này các Tỷ-kheo, cũng như một bao đồ, hai đầu trống đựng đầy các loại hột như gạo, lúa, đậu xanh, đậu lớn, mè, gạo đă xay rồi. Một người có mắt, đổ các hột ấy ra và quán sát: "Đây là hột gạo, đây là hột lúa, đây là đậu xanh, đây là đậu lớn, đây là mè, đây là hột lúa đă xay rồi". Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, một Tỷ-kheo quán sát thân này dưới từ bàn chân trở lên, trên cho đến đảnh tóc, bao bọc bởi da và chứa đầy những vật bất tịnh sai biệt. Trong thân này: "Đây là tóc, lông, móng, răng, da, thịt, gân, xương, tủy, thận, tim, gan, hoành cách mô, lá lách, phổi, ruột, màng ruột, bụng, phân, mật, đàm, mủ, máu, mồ hôi, mỡ, nước mắt, mỡ da, nước miếng, nước mủ, nước ở khớp xương, nước tiểu".

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân, hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.
[5] "Furthermore...just as a skilled butcher or his apprentice, having killed a cow, would sit at a crossroads cutting it up into pieces, the monk contemplates this very body -- however it stands, however it is disposed -- in terms of properties: 'In this body there is the earth property, the liquid property, the fire property, and the wind property.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.
 
[5] Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo quán sát thân này về các vị trí các giới và sự sắp đặt các giới: "Trong thân này có địa đại, thủy đại, hỏa đại và phong đại". Này các Tỷ-kheo, như một người đồ tể thiện xảo, hay đệ tử của một người đổ tể giết một con ḅ, ngồi cắt chia từng thân phần tại ngă tư đường. Cũng vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo quán sát thân này về vị trí các giới và về sự sắp đặt các giới: "Trong thân này có địa đại, thủy đại, hỏa đại và phong đại".
 

** YouTube 2 Vietnamese **
Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.

[6] "Furthermore, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground -- one day, two days, three days dead -- bloated, livid, and festering, he applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate'...
 

"Or again, as if he were to see a corpse cast away in a charnel ground, picked at by crows, vultures, and hawks, by dogs, hyenas, and various other creatures...a skeleton smeared with flesh and blood, connected with tendons...a fleshless skeleton smeared with blood, connected with tendons...a skeleton without flesh or blood, connected with tendons...bones detached from their tendons, scattered in all directions -- here a hand bone, there a foot bone, here a shin bone, there a thigh bone, here a hip bone, there a back bone, here a rib, there a chest bone, here a shoulder bone, there a neck bone, here a jaw bone, there a tooth, here a skull...the bones whitened, somewhat like the color of shells...piled up, more than a year old...decomposed into a powder: He applies it to this very body, 'This body, too: Such is its nature, such is its future, such its unavoidable fate.'

[6] Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo như thấy một thi thể bị quăng bỏ trong nghĩa địa một ngày, hai ngày, ba ngày, thi thể ấy trương phồng lên, xanh đen lại, nát thối ra. Tỷ-kheo quán thân ấy như sau: "Thân này tánh chất là như vậy, bản tánh là như vậy, không vượt khỏi tánh chất ấy".

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.

Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo như thấy một thi thể bị quăng bỏ trong nghĩa địa, bị các loài quạ ăn, hay bị các loài diều hâu ăn, hay bị các chim kên ăn, hay bị các loài chó ăn, hay bị các loài giả can ăn, hay bị các loài côn trùng ăn. Tỷ-kheo quán thân ấy như sau: "Thân này tánh chất là như vậy, bản chất là như vậy, không vượt khỏi tánh chất ấy".

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, lại nữa, Tỷ-kheo như thấy một thi thể bị quăng bỏ trong nghĩa địa, với các bộ xương c̣n liên kết với nhau, c̣n dính thịt và máu, c̣n được các đường gân cột lại... với các bộ xương c̣n liên kết với nhau, không c̣n dính thịt nhưng c̣n dính máu, c̣n được các đường gân cột lại... với các bộ xương không c̣n dính thịt, dính máu, c̣n được các đường gân cột lại, chỉ c̣n có xương không dính lại với nhau, rải rác chỗ này chỗ kia. Ở đây là xương tay, ở đây là xương chân, ở đây là xương ống, ở đây là xương bắp vế, ở đây là xương mông, ở đây là xương sống, ở đây là xương đầu. Tỷ-kheo quán thân ấy như sau: "Thân này tánh chất là như vậy, bản tánh là như vậy, không vượt khỏi tánh chất ấy".

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ ở trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.
"In this way he remains focused internally on the body in and of itself, or externally on the body in and of itself, or both internally and externally on the body in and of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the body, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the body, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to the body. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a body' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself.
 
Lại nữa này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo như thấy một thi thể bị quăng bỏ trong nghĩa địa, chỉ c̣n toàn xương trắng màu vỏ ốc... chỉ c̣n một đống xương lâu hơn ba năm... chỉ c̣n là xương thối trở thành bột. Tỷ-kheo quán thân ấy như sau: "Thân này tánh chất là như vậy, bản tánh là như vậy, không vượt khỏi tánh chất ấy".

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán thân trên nội thân; hay sống quán thân trên ngoại thân; hay sống quán thân trên nội thân, ngoại thân. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên thân; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên thân; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên thân. "Có thân đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thân trên thân.
(B. Feelings)
"And how does a monk remain focused on feelings in and of themselves? There is the case where a monk, when feeling a painful feeling, discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling. When feeling a pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.
( youtube 2
"When feeling a painful feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling of the flesh. When feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a painful feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a pleasant feeling not of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling of the flesh. When feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh, he discerns that he is feeling a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling not of the flesh.

"In this way he remains focused internally on feelings in and of themselves, or externally on feelings in and of themselves, or both internally and externally on feelings in and of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to feelings, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to feelings, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to feelings. Or his mindfulness that 'There are feelings' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on feelings in and of themselves.
 
(Quán thọ)

Này các Tỷ-kheo, như thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán thọ trên các thọ? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây Tỷ-kheo khi cảm giác lạc thọ, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác lạc thọ"; khi cảm giác khổ thọ, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác khổ thọ"; khi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ". Hay khi cảm giác lạc thọ thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác lạc thọ thuộc vật chất"; hay khi cảm giác lạc thọ không thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác lạc thọ không thuộc vật chất". Hay khi cảm giác khổ thọ thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác khổ thọ thuộc vật chất"; hay khi cảm giác khổ thọ không thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác khổ thọ không thuộc vật chất". Hay khi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ thuộc vật chất"; hay khi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ không thuộc vật chất, tuệ tri: "Tôi cảm giác bất khổ bất lạc thọ không thuộc vật chất".

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán thọ trên các nội thọ; hay sống quán thọ trên các ngoại thọ; hay sống quán thọ trên các nội thọ, ngoại thọ. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các thọ, hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các thọ; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các thọ. "Có thọ đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy Tỷ-kheo sống quán thọ trên các thọ.
 
(C. Mind)
"And how does a monk remain focused on the mind in and of itself? There is the case where a monk, when the mind has passion, discerns that the mind has passion. When the mind is without passion, he discerns that the mind is without passion. When the mind has aversion, he discerns that the mind has aversion. When the mind is without aversion, he discerns that the mind is without aversion. When the mind has delusion, he discerns that the mind has delusion. When the mind is without delusion, he discerns that the mind is without delusion.
"When the mind is restricted, he discerns that the mind is restricted. When the mind is scattered, he discerns that the mind is scattered. When the mind is enlarged, he discerns that the mind is enlarged. When the mind is not enlarged, he discerns that the mind is not enlarged. When the mind is surpassed, he discerns that the mind is surpassed. When the mind is unsurpassed, he discerns that the mind is unsurpassed. When the mind is concentrated, he discerns that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he discerns that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released, he discerns that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he discerns that the mind is not released.

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mind in and of itself, or externally on the mind in and of itself, or both internally and externally on the mind in and of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to the mind. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the mind in and of itself.
 
(Quán tâm)

Này các Tỷ-kheo, như thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán tâm trên tâm? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây, Tỷ-kheo, với tâm có tham, tuệ tri: "Tâm có tham"; hay với tâm không tham, tuệ tri: "Tâm không tham". Hay với tâm có sân, tuệ tri: "Tâm có sân"; hay với tâm không sân, tuệ tri: "Tâm không sân". Hay với tâm có si, tuệ tri: "Tâm có si"; hay với tâm không si, tuệ tri: "Tâm không si". Hay với tâm thâu nhiếp, tuệ tri: "Tâm được thâu nhiếp". Hay với tâm tán loạn, tuệ tri: "Tâm bị tán loạn". Hay với tâm quảng đại, tuệ tri: "Tâm được quảng đại"; hay với tâm không quảng đại, tuệ tri: "Tâm không được quảng đại". Hay với tâm hữu hạn, tuệ tri: "Tâm hữu hạn". Hay với tâm vô thượng, tuệ tri: "Tâm vô thượng". Hay với tâm có định, tuệ tri: "Tâm có định"; hay với tâm không định, tuệ tri: "Tâm không định". Hay với tâm giải thoát, tuệ tri: "Tâm có giải thoát"; hay với tâm không giải thoát, tuệ tri: "Tâm không giải thoát".

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán tâm trên nội tâm; hay sống quán tâm trên ngoại tâm; hay sống quán tâm trên nội tâm, ngoại tâm. Hay sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên tâm; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên tâm; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên tâm. "Có tâm đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán tâm trên tâm.
 
(D. Mental Qualities)
"And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves?
[1] "There is the case where a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five hindrances. And how does a monk remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five hindrances? There is the case where, there being sensual desire present within, a monk discerns that 'There is sensual desire present within me.' Or, there being no sensual desire present within, he discerns that 'There is no sensual desire present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen sensual desire. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of sensual desire once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no further appearance in the future of sensual desire that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining hindrances: ill will, sloth and drowsiness, restlessness and anxiety, and uncertainty.)

"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in and of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in and of themselves, or both internally and externally on mental qualities in and of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five hindrances.


 
(Quán pháp)

Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây, Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm triền cái. Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm triền cái? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây, Tỷ-kheo nội tâm có ái dục, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có ái dục"; hay nội tâm không có ái dục, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có ái dục". Và với ái dục chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với ái dục đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với ái dục đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Hay nội tâm có sân hận, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có sân hận"; hay nội tâm không có sân hận, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có sân hận". Và với sân hận chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với sân hận đă sanh, nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với sân hận đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy. Hay nội tâm có hôn trầm thụy miên, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có hôn trầm thụy miên"; hay nội tâm không có hôn trầm thụy miên, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có hôn trầm thụy miên". Và với hôn trầm thụy miên chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với hôn trầm thụy miên đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với hôn trầm thụy miên đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

** YouTube 3 Vietnamese **

 Hay nội tâm có trạo hối, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có trạo hối"; hay nội tâm không có trạo hối, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có trạo hối". Và với trạo hối chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với trạo hối đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với trạo hối đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy. Hay nội tâm có nghi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có nghi"; hay nội tâm không có nghi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có nghi". Và với nghi chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với nghi đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với nghi đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các ngoại pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp, ngoại pháp. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các pháp. "Có những pháp ở đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm triền cái.



 

[2] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance? There is the case where a monk [discerns]: 'Such is form, such its origination, such its disappearance. Such is feeling... Such is perception...Such are fabrications...Such is consciousness, such its origination, such its disappearance.'

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in and of themselves, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the five aggregates for clinging/sustenance.
 
[2] Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm thủ uẩn. Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm thủ uẩn? Này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo suy tư: "Đây là sắc, đây là sắc tập, đây là sắc diệt. Đây là thọ, đây là thọ tập, đây là thọ diệt. Đây là tưởng, đây là tưởng tập; đây là tưởng diệt. Đây là hành, đây là hành tập, đây là hành diệt. Đây là thức, đây là thức tập, đây là thức diệt". Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các ngoại pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp, ngoại pháp. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các pháp. "Có những pháp ở đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với năm thủ uẩn.
[3] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal and external sense media. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal and external sense media? There is the case where he discerns the eye, he discerns forms, he discerns the fetter that arises dependent on both. He discerns how there is the arising of an unarisen fetter. And he discerns how there is the abandoning of a fetter once it has arisen. And he discerns how there is no further appearance in the future of a fetter that has been abandoned. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining sense media: ear, nose, tongue, body, and intellect.)

"In this way he remains focused internally on the mental qualities in and of themselves, or focused externally...unsustained by anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the sixfold internal and external sense media.

[4] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the seven factors of awakening. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the seven factors of awakening? There is the case where, there being mindfulness as a factor of awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor of awakening is present within me.' Or, there being no mindfulness as a factor of awakening present within, he discerns that 'Mindfulness as a factor of awakening is not present within me.' He discerns how there is the arising of unarisen mindfulness as a factor of awakening. And he discerns how there is the culmination of the development of mindfulness as a factor of awakening once it has arisen. (The same formula is repeated for the remaining factors of awakening: analysis of qualities, persistence, rapture, serenity, concentration, and equanimity.)

"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in and of themselves, or externally...unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the seven factors of awakening.

[5] "Furthermore, the monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the four noble truths. And how does he remain focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the four noble truths? There is the case where he discerns, as it is actually present, that 'This is stress...This is the origination of stress...This is the cessation of stress...This is the way leading to the cessation of stress.'
(youtube 3 )
"In this way he remains focused internally on mental qualities in and of themselves, or externally on mental qualities in and of themselves, or both internally and externally on mental qualities in and of themselves. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to mental qualities, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to mental qualities, or on the phenomenon of origination and passing away with regard to mental qualities. Or his mindfulness that 'There are mental qualities' is maintained to the extent of knowledge and remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves with reference to the four noble truths...
 

 

Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với sáu nội ngoại xứ. (REF 2) Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với sáu nội ngoại xứ? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây Tỷ-kheo tuệ tri con mắt và tuệ tri các sắc, do duyên hai pháp này, kiết sử sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Tỷ-kheo tuệ tri tai và tuệ tri các tiếng... tuệ tri mũi và tuệ tri các hương... tuệ tri lưỡi... và tuệ tri các vị... tuệ tri thân và tuệ tri các xúc, tuệ tri ư và tuệ tri các pháp; do duyên hai pháp này, kiết sử sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử đă sanh nay được đoạn diệt, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy; và với kiết sử đă được đoạn diệt, tương lai không sanh khởi nữa, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các ngoại pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp, ngoại pháp. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các pháp. "Có những pháp ở đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với sáu nội ngoại xứ.

Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bảy Giác chi. Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bảy Giác chi? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây Tỷ-kheo nội tâm có niệm giác chi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có niệm giác chi"; hay nội tâm không có niệm giác chi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có ư niệm giác chi". Và với niệm giác chi chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy, và với niệm giác chi đă sanh, nay được tu tập viên thành, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Hay Tỷ-kheo nội tâm có trạch pháp giác chi... (như trên)... hay nội tâm có tinh tấn giác chi... (như trên)... hay nội tâm có hỷ giác chi... (như trên)... hay nội tâm có khinh an giác chi... (như trên)... hay nội tâm có định giác chi... (như trên)... hay nội tâm có xả giác chi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi có xả giác chi"; hay nội tâm không có xả giác chi, tuệ tri: "Nội tâm tôi không có xả giác chi". Và với xả giác chi chưa sanh nay sanh khởi, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy, và với xả giác chi đă sanh nay được tu tập viên thành, vị ấy tuệ tri như vậy.

Như vậy vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các ngoại pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp, ngoại pháp. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các pháp. "Có những pháp ở đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bảy Giác chi.

Lại nữa, này các Tỷ-kheo, vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bốn Thánh đế. Này các Tỷ-kheo, thế nào là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bốn Thánh đế? Này các Tỷ-kheo, ở đây, Tỷ-kheo như thật tuệ tri: "Đây là Khổ"; như thật tuệ tri: "Đây là Khổ tập"; như thật tuệ tri: "Đây là Khổ diệt"; như thật tuệ tri: "Đây là Con đường đưa đến Khổ diệt".

Như vậy, vị ấy sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các ngoại pháp; hay sống quán pháp trên các nội pháp, ngoại pháp. Hay vị ấy sống quán tánh sanh khởi trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh diệt tận trên các pháp; hay sống quán tánh sanh diệt trên các pháp. "Có những pháp ở đây", vị ấy sống an trú chánh niệm như vậy, với hy vọng hướng đến chánh trí, chánh niệm. Và vị ấy sống không nương tựa, không chấp trước một vật ǵ trên đời. Này các Tỷ-kheo, như vậy là Tỷ-kheo sống quán pháp trên các pháp đối với Bốn Thánh đế.
 
(E. Conclusion)
"Now, if anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven years, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here and now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.
"Let alone seven years. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for six years...five...four...three...two years...one year...seven months...six months...five...four...three...two months...one month...half a month, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here and now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.

"Let alone half a month. If anyone would develop these four frames of reference in this way for seven days, one of two fruits can be expected for him: either gnosis right here and now, or -- if there be any remnant of clinging-sustenance -- non-return.

"'This is the direct path for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the disappearance of pain and distress, for the attainment of the right method, and for the realization of Unbinding -- in other words, the four frames of reference.' Thus was it said, and in reference to this was it said."

That is what the Blessed One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One's words.

Revised: 9 November 1998 ; http://world.std.com/mn10.html 
 
(Kết luận)

Này các Tỷ-kheo, vị nào tu tập Bốn Niệm xứ này như vậy trong bảy năm, vị ấy có thể chứng một trong hai quả sau đây: Một là chứng Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, hay nếu c̣n hữu dư y, th́ chứng quả Bất hoàn.
** YouTube 4 end Vietnamese **
Này các Tỷ-kheo, không cần ǵ đến bảy năm, một vị nào tu tập Bốn Niệm xứ này như vậy trong sáu năm, trong năm năm, trong bốn năm, trong ba năm, trong hai năm, trong một năm, vị ấy có thể chứng một trong hai quả sau đây: Một là chứng Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, hay nếu c̣n hữu dư y, th́ chứng quả Bất hoàn.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, không cần ǵ đến một năm, một vị nào tu tập Bốn Niệm xứ này trong bảy tháng, vị ấy có thể chứng một trong hai quả sau đây: Một là chứng Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, hay nếu c̣n hữu dư y, th́ chứng quả Bất hoàn. Này các Tỷ-kheo, không cần ǵ bảy tháng, một vị nào tu tập Bốn Niệm xứ này trong sáu tháng, trong năm tháng, trong bốn tháng, trong ba tháng, trong hai tháng, trong một tháng, trong nửa tháng, vị ấy có thể chứng một trong hai quả sau đây: Một là chứng Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, hay nếu c̣n hữu dư y, th́ chứng quả Bất hoàn.

Này các Tỷ-kheo, không cần ǵ nửa tháng, một vị nào tu tập Bốn Niệm xứ này trong bảy ngày, vị ấy có thể chứng một trong hai quả sau đây: Một là chứng Chánh trí ngay trong hiện tại, hai là nếu c̣n hữu dư y, th́ chứng quả Bất hoàn... Này các Tỷ-kheo, đây là con đường độc nhất đưa đến thanh tịnh cho chúng sanh, vượt khỏi sầu năo, diệt trừ khổ ưu, thành tựu Chánh trí, chứng ngộ Niết-bàn. Đó là Bốn Niệm xứ.

Thế Tôn thuyết giảng như vậy. Các Tỷ-kheo ấy hoan hỷ, tín thọ lời dạy của Thế Tôn.

Ḥa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt

 
   
TRANSLATION FROM

http://www.accesstoinsight.org/l

Satipatthana Sutta
The Foundations of Mindfulness
Translated from the Pali by
Nyanasatta Thera
Alternate translation: Nyanasatta Soma Thanissaro
 

http://wwmn.010.soma.html
 

Satipatthana Sutta
The Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness
Translated from the Pali by
Soma Thera
Alternate translation: Nyanasatta Soma Thanissaro
 

The Four foundations of Mindfulness.

Thus have I heard. At one time the Blessed One was living among the Kurus, at Kammasadamma, a market town of the Kuru people. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhu thus: "Monks," and they replied to him, "Venerable Sir." The Blessed One spoke as follows:

This is the only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the four foundations of mindfulness. What are the four?

Herein (in this teaching) a monk lives contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending and mindful, having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief.
 

The Four Arousings of Mindfulness

Thus have I heard.

At one time the Blessed One was living in the Kurus, at Kammasadamma, a market-town of the Kuru people.

Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus as follows: "This is the only way, O bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."

The Four Arousings of Mindfulness
"What are the four?

"Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending (it) and mindful (of it), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating the feelings in the feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending (them) and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness, ardent, clearly comprehending (it) and mindful (of it), having overcome in this world covetousness and grief; he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, ardent, clearly comprehending (them) and mindful (of them), having overcome, in this world, covetousness and grief."

 

I. The Contemplation of the Body


1. Mindfulness of Breathing
And how does a monk live contemplating the body in the body?

Herein, monks, a monk, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree or to an empty place, sits down with his legs crossed, keeps his body erect and his mindfulness alert.3

Ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out. Breathing in a long breath, he knows, "I am breathing in a long breath"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I am breathing out a long breath"; breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I am breathing in a short breath"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I am breathing out a short breath."

"Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself. "Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself.

Just as a skillful turner or turner's apprentice, making a long turn, knows, "I am making a long turn," or making a short turn, knows, "I am making a short turn," just so the monk, breathing in a long breath, knows, "I am breathing in a long breath"; breathing out a long breath, he knows, "I am breathing out a long breath"; breathing in a short breath, he knows, "I am breathing in a short breath"; breathing out a short breath, he knows, "I am breathing out a short breath." "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "Experiencing the whole (breath-) body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself. "Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe in," thus he trains himself. "Calming the activity of the (breath-) body, I shall breathe out," thus he trains himself.

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.4 He lives contemplating origination factors5 in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors6 in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors7 in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: "The body exists,"8 to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached,9 and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

2. The Postures of the Body
And further, monks, a monk knows, when he is going, "I am going"; he knows, when he is standing, "I am standing"; he knows, when he is sitting, "I am sitting"; he knows, when he is lying down, "I am lying down"; or just as his body is disposed so he knows it.

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in the body.10 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: "The body exists," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

3. Mindfulness with Clear Comprehension
And further, monks, a monk, in going forward and back, applies clear comprehension; in looking straight on and looking away, he applies clear comprehension; in bending and in stretching, he applies clear comprehension; in wearing robes and carrying the bowl, he applies clear comprehension; in eating, drinking, chewing and savoring, he applies clear comprehension; in walking, in standing, in sitting, in falling asleep, in waking, in speaking and in keeping silence, he applies clear comprehension.

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body...

4. The Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body
And further, monks, a monk reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the soles up, and from the top of the head-hairs down, thinking thus: "There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid, urine."
(youtube 4)
Just as if there were a double-mouthed provision bag full of various kinds of grain such as hill paddy, paddy, green gram, cow-peas, sesamum, and husked rice, and a man with sound eyes, having opened that bag, were to take stock of the contents thus: "This is hill paddy, this is paddy, this is green gram, this is cow-pea, this is sesamum, this is husked rice." Just so, monks, a monk reflects on this very body enveloped by the skin and full of manifold impurity, from the soles up, and from the top of the head-hairs down, thinking thus: "There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidney, heart, liver, midriff, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, nasal mucus, synovial fluid, urine."

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body...

5. The Reflection on the Material Elements
And further, monks, a monk reflects on this very body, however it be placed or disposed, by way of the material elements: "There are in this body the element of earth, the element of water, the element of fire, the element of wind."11

Just as if, monks, a clever cow-butcher or his apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it into portions, should be sitting at the junction of four high roads, in the same way, a monk reflects on this very body, as it is placed or disposed, by way of the material elements: "There are in this body the elements of earth, water, fire, and wind."

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body...

6. The Nine Cemetery Contemplations
(1) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body dead one, two, or three days; swollen, blue and festering, thrown in the charnel ground, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: "Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it."

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: "The body exists," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.

(2) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals or by different kinds of worms, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: "Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it."

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body...

(3) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton with some flesh and blood attached to it, held together by the tendons...

(4) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton blood-besmeared and without flesh, held together by the tendons...

(5) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton without flesh and blood, held together by the tendons...

(6) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to disconnected bones, scattered in all directions_here a bone of the hand, there a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull...

(7) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, reduced to bleached bones of conchlike color...

(8) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground reduced to bones, more than a year-old, lying in a heap...

(9) And further, monks, as if a monk sees a body thrown in the charnel ground, reduced to bones gone rotten and become dust, he then applies this perception to his own body thus: "Verily, also my own body is of the same nature; such it will become and will not escape it."

Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: "The body exists," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating the body in the body.
 

I. The Contemplation of the Body

Mindfulness of Breathing
"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating the body in the body?
(youtube 7)
"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty place, sits down, bends in his legs crosswise on his lap, keeps his body erect, and arouses mindfulness in the object of meditation, namely, the breath which is in front of him.

"Mindful, he breathes in, and mindful, he breathes out. He, thinking, 'I breathe in long,' he understands when he is breathing in long; or thinking, 'I breathe out long,' he understands when he is breathing out long; or thinking, 'I breathe in short,' he understands when he is breathing in short; or thinking, 'I breathe out short,' he understands when he is breathing out short.

"'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Calming the activity of the body, I shall breathe in,' thinking thus, he trains himself. 'Calming the activity of the body, I shall breathe out,' thinking thus, he trains himself.

"Just as a clever turner or a turner's apprentice, turning long, understands: 'I turn long'; or turning short, understands: 'I turn short'; just so, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, when he breathes in long, understands: 'I breathe in long'; or, when he breathes out long, understands: 'I breathe out long'; or, when he breathes in short, he understands: 'I breathe in short'; or when he breathes out short, he understands: 'I breathe out short.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe in.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Experiencing the whole body, I shall breathe out.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Calming the activity of the body I shall breathe in.' He trains himself with the thought: 'Calming the activity of the body I shall breathe out.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world. Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

The Modes of Deportment
"And further, O bhikkhus, when he is going, a bhikkhu understands: 'I am going'; when he is standing, he understands: 'I am standing'; when he is sitting, he understands: 'I am sitting'; when he is lying down, he understands: 'I am lying down'; or just as his body is disposed so he understands it.

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things, in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world." Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

The Four Kinds of Clear Comprehension
"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu, in going forwards (and) in going backwards, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in looking straight on (and) in looking away from the front, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in bending and in stretching, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in wearing the shoulder-cloak, the (other two) robes (and) the bowl, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in regard to what is eaten, drunk, chewed and savored, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in defecating and in urinating, is a person practicing clear comprehension; in walking, in standing (in a place), in sitting (in some position), in sleeping, in waking, in speaking and in keeping silence, is a person practicing clear comprehension.

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world. Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

The Reflection on the Repulsiveness of the Body
"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body hemmed by the skin and full of manifold impurity from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, thinking thus: 'There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, fibrous threads (veins, nerves, sinews, tendons), bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, contents of stomach, intestines, mesentery, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tars, fat dissolved, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine.'

"Just as if, O bhikkhus, there were a bag having two openings, full of grain differing in kind, namely, hill-paddy, paddy, green-gram, cow-pea, sesamum, rice; and a man with seeing eyes, having loosened it, should reflect thinking thus: 'This is hill paddy; this is paddy, this is green-gram; this is cow-pea; this is sesamum; this is rice.' In the same way, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body hemmed in by the skin and full of manifold impurity from the soles up, and from the top of the hair down, thinking thus: 'There are in this body: hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, fibrous threads (veins, nerves, sinews, tendons), bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, contents of the stomach, intestines, mesentery, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, solid fat, tears, fat dissolved, saliva, mucus, synovic fluid, urine.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

The Reflection on the Modes of Materiality (Elements, Dhatu)
"And further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the modes of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are in this body the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.'

"O bhikkhus, in whatever manner, a clever cow-butcher or a cow-butcher's apprentice, having slaughtered a cow and divided it by way of portions, should be sitting at the junction of a four-cross-road; in the same manner, a bhikkhu reflects on just this body, according as it is placed or disposed, by way of the modes of materiality, thinking thus: 'There are in this body the mode of solidity, the mode of cohesion, the mode of caloricity, and the mode of oscillation.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 1
"And further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body dead, one, two, or three days: swollen, blue and festering, thrown into the charnel ground, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."
(youtube 8)
Cemetery Contemplation 2
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees, whilst it is being eaten by crows, hawks, vultures, dogs, jackals or by different kinds of worms, a body that had been thrown into the charnel ground, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent, and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 3
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body, thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton together with (some) flesh and blood held in by the tendons, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally.

"He lives contemplating origination-things in the body or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or indeed, his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent, and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 4
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a blood-besmeared skeleton without flesh but held in by the tendons, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 5
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to a skeleton held in by the tendons but without flesh and not besmeared with blood, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mind, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 6
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones gone loose, scattered in all directions — a bone of the hand, a bone of the foot, a shin bone, a thigh bone, the pelvis, spine and skull, each in a different place — he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body, and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 7
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones, white in color like a conch, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 8
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones more than a year old, heaped together, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine, too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, also, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."

Cemetery Contemplation 9
"And, further, O bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu, in whatever way, sees a body thrown in the charnel ground and reduced to bones gone rotten and become dust, he thinks of his own body thus: 'This body of mine too, is of the same nature as that body, is going to be like that body and has not got past the condition of becoming like that body.'

"Thus he lives contemplating the body in the body internally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body externally, or he lives contemplating the body in the body internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in the body, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in the body, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in the body. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'The body exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the body in the body."
 

II. The Contemplation of Feeling
And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating feelings in feelings?

Herein, monks, a monk when experiencing a pleasant feeling knows, "I experience a pleasant feeling"; when experiencing a painful feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful feeling"; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling," he knows, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling." When experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant worldly feeling"; when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows, "I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling"; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful worldly feeling"; when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling, he knows, "I experience a painful spiritual feeling"; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, he knows, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling"; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling, he knows, "I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling."

Thus he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally, or he lives contemplating feelings in feelings externally, or he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in feelings, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in feelings, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in feelings.12 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Feeling exists," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating feelings in feelings.
 
The Contemplation of Feeling
"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating feeling in feelings?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu when experiencing a pleasant feeling, understands: 'I experience a pleasant feeling'; when experiencing a painful feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful feeling'; when experiencing a pleasant worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a pleasant worldly feeling'; when experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a pleasant spiritual feeling'; when experiencing a painful worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful worldly feeling'; when experiencing a painful spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a painful spiritual feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful worldly feeling'; when experiencing a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling, he understands: 'I experience a neither-pleasant-nor-painful spiritual feeling.'

"Thus he lives contemplating feelings in feelings internally, or he lives contemplating feeling in feelings externally, or he lives contemplating feeling in feelings internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in feelings, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in feelings, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in feelings. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'Feeling exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating feeling in feelings."


 
III. The Contemplation of Consciousness
And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating consciousness in consciousness?

Herein, monks, a monk knows the consciousness with lust, as with lust; the consciousness without lust, as without lust; the consciousness with hate, as with hate; the consciousness without hate, as without hate; the consciousness with ignorance, as with ignorance; the consciousness without ignorance, as without ignorance; the shrunken state of consciousness, as the shrunken state;13 the distracted state of consciousness, as the distracted state;14 the developed state of consciousness as the developed state;15 the undeveloped state of consciousness as the undeveloped state;16 the state of consciousness with some other mental state superior to it, as the state with something mentally higher;17 the state of consciousness with no other mental state superior to it, as the state with nothing mentally higher; (youtube 5 ) 18 the concentrated state of consciousness, as the concentrated state; the unconcentrated state of consciousness, as the unconcentrated state; the freed state of consciousness, as the freed state;19 and the unfreed state of consciousness as the unfreed state.

Thus he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness externally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in consciousness, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in consciousness, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in consciousness.20 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Consciousness exists," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness.
 
The Contemplation of Consciousness
(youtube 9)

"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating consciousness in consciousness?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the consciousness with lust, as with lust; the consciousness without lust, as without lust; the consciousness with hate, as with hate; the consciousness without hate, as without hate; the consciousness with ignorance, as with ignorance; the consciousness without ignorance, as without ignorance; the shrunken state of consciousness, as the shrunken state; the distracted state of consciousness, as the distracted state; the state of consciousness become great, as the state become great; the state of consciousness not become great, as the state not become great; the state of consciousness with some other mental state superior to it, as the state with something mentally higher; the state of consciousness with no other mental state superior to it, as the state with nothing mentally higher; the quieted state of consciousness, as the quieted state; the state of consciousness not quieted, as the state not quieted; the freed state of consciousness as freed; and the unfreed state of consciousness, as unfreed.

"Thus he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness externally, or he lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in consciousness, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in consciousness, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in consciousness. Or his mindfulness is established with the thought: 'Consciousness exists,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating consciousness in consciousness."

IV. The Contemplation of Mental Objects
1. The Five Hindrances
And how, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in mental objects?

Herein, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.

How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances?

Herein, monks, when sense-desire is present, a monk knows, "There is sense-desire in me," or when sense-desire is not present, he knows, "There is no sense-desire in me." He knows how the arising of the non-arisen sense-desire comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen sense-desire comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sense-desire comes to be.

When anger is present, he knows, "There is anger in me," or when anger is not present, he knows, "There is no anger in me." He knows how the arising of the non-arisen anger comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes to be.

When sloth and torpor are present, he knows, "There are sloth and torpor in me," or when sloth and torpor are not present, he knows, "There are no sloth and torpor in me." He knows how the arising of the non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be.

When agitation and remorse are present, he knows, "There are agitation and remorse in me," or when agitation and remorse are not present, he knows, "There are no agitation and remorse in me." He knows how the arising of the non-arisen agitation and remorse comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen agitation and remorse comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned agitation and remorse comes to be.

When doubt is present, he knows, "There is doubt in me," or when doubt is not present, he knows, "There is no doubt in me." He knows how the arising of the non-arisen doubt comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen doubt comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.21 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Mental objects exist," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.

2. The Five Aggregates of Clinging
And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.22

How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging?

Herein, monks, a monk thinks, "Thus is material form; thus is the arising of material form; and thus is the disappearance of material form. Thus is feeling; thus is the arising of feeling; and thus is the disappearance of feeling. Thus is perception; thus is the arising of perception; and thus is the disappearance of perception. Thus are formations; thus is the arising of formations; and thus is the disappearance of formations. Thus is consciousness; thus is the arising of consciousness; and thus is the disappearance of consciousness."

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.23 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Mental objects exist," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus also, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.

3. The Six Internal and External Sense Bases
And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.

How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?

Herein, monks, a monk knows the eye and visual forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the eye and forms);24 he knows how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

He knows the ear and sounds... the nose and smells... the tongue and flavors... the body and tactual objects... the mind and mental objects, and the fetter that arises dependent on both; he knows how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he knows how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he knows how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution factors in mental objects.25 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Mental objects exist," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.

4. The Seven Factors of Enlightenment
And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment.

How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment?

Herein, monks, when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is present, the monk knows, "The enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is in me," or when the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is absent, he  (youtube 6) knows,

"The enlightenment-factor of mindfulness is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be; and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of mindfulness comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is present, the monk knows, "The enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of energy is present, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of energy is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of energy is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of energy is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of energy comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of joy is present, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of joy is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of joy is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of joy is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of joy comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of joy comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is present, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of tranquillity is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquillity comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of tranquillity comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of concentration is present, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of concentration is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of concentration is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of concentration is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of concentration comes to be.

When the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is present, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of equanimity is in me"; when the enlightenment-factor of equanimity is absent, he knows, "The enlightenment-factor of equanimity is not in me"; and he knows how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be, and how perfection in the development of the arisen enlightenment-factor of equanimity comes to be.

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in mental objects.26 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Mental objects exist," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment.

5. The Four Noble Truths
And further, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths.

How, monks, does a monk live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths?

Herein, monks, a monk knows, "This is suffering," according to reality; he knows, "This is the origin of suffering," according to reality; he knows, "This is the cessation of suffering," according to reality; he knows "This is the road leading to the cessation of suffering," according to reality.

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-factors in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-factors in mental objects.27 Or his mindfulness is established with the thought, "Mental objects exist," to the extent necessary just for knowledge and mindfulness, and he lives detached, and clings to nothing in the world. Thus, monks, a monk lives contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the four noble truths.

* * *

Verily, monks, whosoever practices these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for seven years, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge (arahantship) here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.28

O monks, let alone seven years. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for six years... five years... four years... three years... two years... one year, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

O monks, let alone a year. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for seven months... six months... five months... four months... three months... two months... a month... half a month, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

O monks, let alone half a month. Should any person practice these four foundations of mindfulness in this manner for a week, then one of these two fruits may be expected by him: highest knowledge here and now, or if some remainder of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

Because of this it was said: "This is the only way, monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely the four foundations of mindfulness."

Thus spoke the Blessed One. Satisfied, the monks approved of his words.

 

The Contemplation on Mental Objects
1. The Five Hindrances
"And how, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in mental objects?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating the mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances.

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five hindrances?

"Here, O bhikkhus, when sensuality is present, a bhikkhu knows with understanding: 'I have sensuality,' or when sensuality is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no sensuality.' He understands how the arising of the non-arisen sensuality comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen sensuality comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sensuality comes to be. When anger is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have anger,' or when anger is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no anger.' He understands how the arising of the non-arisen anger comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen anger comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned anger comes to be. When sloth and torpor are present, he knows with understanding: 'I have sloth and torpor,' or when sloth and torpor are not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no sloth and torpor.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen sloth and torpor comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned sloth and torpor comes to be. When agitation and worry are present, he knows with understanding: 'I have agitation and worry,' or when agitation and worry are not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no agitation and worry.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen agitation and worry comes to be; and he understands how the abandoning of the arisen agitation and worry comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned agitation and worry comes to be. When doubt is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have doubt,' or when doubt is not present, he knows with understanding: 'I have no doubt.' He understands how the arising of non-arisen doubt comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen doubt comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned doubt comes to be.

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, externally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally and externally. He lives contemplating origination-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in mental objects. Or his mind is established with the thought: 'Mental objects exist,' to the extent necessary for just knowledge and remembrance and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five hindrances."

2. The Five Aggregates of Clinging
"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging.

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental objects in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu thinks: 'Thus is material form; thus is the arising of material form; and thus is the disappearance of material form. Thus is feeling; thus is the arising of feeling; and thus is the disappearance of feeling. Thus is perception; thus is the arising of perception; and thus is the disappearance of perception. Thus are the formations; thus is the arising of the formations; and thus is the disappearance of the formations. Thus is consciousness; thus is the arising of consciousness; and thus is the disappearance of consciousness.'

Thus he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the five aggregates of clinging."

3. The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-bases
"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases.

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the eye and material forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the ear and sounds and the fetter that arises dependent on both (ear and sounds); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of smell and odors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of smell and odors); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of taste and flavors and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of taste and flavors); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands the organ of touch and tactual objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (the organ of touch and tactual objects); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. He understands consciousness and mental objects and the fetter that arises dependent on both (consciousness and mental objects); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be.

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects, internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six externally sense-bases."

4. The Seven Factors of Enlightenment
"And, further, o bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment."

"How, o bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment?"

"Here, o bhikkhus, when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is present, a bhikkhu knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of mindfulness'; or when the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of mindfulness'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of mindfulness comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects'; when the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be and how the completion of culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of the investigation of mental objects comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of energy is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of energy'; when the enlightenment factor of energy is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of energy'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of energy comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of joy is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of joy'; when the enlightenment factor of joy is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of joy'; and he understands how the rising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of joy comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of calm is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of calm'; when the enlightenment factor of calm is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of calm'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of calm comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of calm comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of concentration is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of concentration'; when the enlightenment factor of concentration is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of concentration'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of concentration comes to be. When the enlightenment factor of equanimity is present, he knows with understanding: 'I have the enlightenment factor of equanimity'; when the enlightenment factor of equanimity is absent, he knows with understanding: 'I have not the enlightenment factor of equanimity'; and he understands how the arising of the non-arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be and how the completion by culture of the arisen enlightenment factor of equanimity comes to be.

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally... and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the seven factors of enlightenment."

5. The Four Truths
"And, further, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths.

"How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths?

"Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands: 'This is suffering,' according to reality; he understands: 'This is the origin of suffering,' according to reality; he understands: 'This is the cessation of suffering,' according to reality; and he understands: 'This is the road leading to the cessation of suffering,' according to realty.

"Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally or he lives contemplating mental objects in mental objects externally, or he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects internally and externally."

"He lives contemplating origination things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating dissolution-things in mental objects, or he lives contemplating origination-and-dissolution-things in mental objects, or his mindfulness is established with the thought, 'Mental objects exist,' to the extent necessary just for knowledge and remembrance, and he lives independent and clings to naught in the world.

"Thus, indeed, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu lives contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the Four Noble Truths."

Assurance of Attainment
"O bhikkhus, should any person maintain the Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for seven years, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge (arahantship) here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning (the Third Stage of Supramundane Fulfillment).

"O bhikkhus, let alone seven years. Should a person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, in this manner, for six years... for five years... four years... three years... two years... one year, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

"O bhikkhus, let alone a year. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness, in the manner, for seven months, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

"O bhikkhus, let alone seven months. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for six months... five months... four months... three months... two months... one month... half-a-month, then, by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

"O bhikkhus, let alone half-a-month. Should any person maintain these Four Arousings of Mindfulness in this manner for a week, then by him one of two fruitions is proper to be expected: Knowledge here and now; or, if some form of clinging is yet present, the state of non-returning.

"Because of this was it said: 'This is the only way, O bhikkhus, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the destruction of suffering and grief, for reaching the right path, for the attainment of Nibbana, namely, the Four Arousings of Mindfulness."

Thus spoke the Blessed One. Satisfied, the bhikkhus approved of his words.

 
Notes

1. The repetition of the phrases 'contemplating the body in the body,' 'feelings in feelings,' etc. is meant to impress upon the meditator the importance of remaining aware whether, in the sustained attention directed upon a single chosen object, one is still keeping to it, and has not strayed into the field of another contemplation. For instance, when contemplating any bodily process, a meditator may unwittingly be side-tracked into a consideration of his feelings connected with that bodily process. He should then be clearly aware that he has left his original subject, and is engaged in the contemplation of feeling.

2. Mind (Pali citta, also consciousness or viññana) in this connection means the states of mind or units in the stream of mind of momentary duration. Mental objects, dhamma, are the mental contents or factors of consciousness making up the single states of mind.

3. Literally, "setting up mindfulness in front."

4. 'Internally': contemplating his own breathing; 'externally': contemplating another's breathing; 'internally and externally': contemplating one's own and another's breathing, alternately, with uninterrupted attention. In the beginning one pays attention to one's own breathing only, and it is only in advanced stages that for the sake of practicing insight, one by inference at times pays attention also to another person's process of breathing.

5. The origination factors (samudaya-dhamma), that is, the conditions of the origination of the breath-body; these are: the body in its entirety, nasal aperture and mind.

6. The conditions of the dissolution of the breath-body are: the destruction of the body and of the nasal aperture, and the ceasing of mental activity.

7. The contemplation of both, alternately.

8. That is, only impersonal bodily processes exist, without a self, soul, spirit or abiding essence or substance. The corresponding phrase in the following contemplations should be understood accordingly.

9. Detached from craving and wrong view.

10. All contemplations of the body, excepting the preceding one, have as factors of origination: ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: disappearance of ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of dissolving.

11. The so-called 'elements' are the primary qualities of matter, explained by Buddhist tradition as solidity (earth), adhesion (water), caloricity (fire) and motion (wind or air).

12. The factors of origination are here: ignorance, craving, kamma, and sense-impression, and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: the disappearance of the four, and the general characteristic of dissolving.

13. This refers to a rigid and indolent state of mind.

14. This refers to a restless mind.

15. The consciousness of the meditative absorptions of the fine-corporeal and uncorporeal sphere (rupa-arupa-jhana).

16. The ordinary consciousness of the sensuous state of existence (kamavacara).

17. The consciousness of the sensuous state of existence, having other mental states superior to it.

18. The consciousness of the fine-corporeal and the uncorporeal spheres, having no mundane mental state superior to it.

19. Temporarily freed from the defilements either through the methodical practice of insight (vipassana) freeing from single evil states by force of their opposites, or through the meditative absorptions (jhana).

20. The factors of origination consist here of ignorance, craving, kamma, body-and-mind (nama-rupa), and the general characteristic of originating; the factors of dissolution are: the disappearance of ignorance, etc., and the general characteristic of dissolving.

21. The factors of origination are here the conditions which produce the hindrances, such as wrong reflection, etc., the factors of dissolution are the conditions which remove the hindrances, e.g., right reflection.

22. These five groups or aggregates constitute the so-called personality. By making them objects of clinging, existence, in the form of repeated births and deaths, is perpetuated.

23. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the five aggregates: for material form, the same as for the postures (Note 10); for feeling, the same as for the contemplation of feeling (Note 12); for perception and formations, the same as for feeling (Note 12); for consciousness, the same as for the contemplation of consciousness (Note 20).

24. The usual enumeration of the ten principal fetters (samyojana), as given in the Discourse Collection (Sutta Pitaka), is as follows: (1) self-illusion, (2) skepticism, (3) attachment to rules and rituals, (4) sensual lust, (5) ill-will, (6) craving for fine-corporeal existence, (7) craving for incorporeal existence, (8) conceit, (9) restlessness, (10) ignorance.

25. Origination factors of the ten physical sense-bases are ignorance, craving, kamma, food, and the general characteristic of originating; dissolution factors: the general characteristic of dissolving and the disappearance of ignorance, etc. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the mind-base are the same as those of feeling (Note 12).

26. Just the conditions conducive to the origination and dissolution of the factors of enlightenment comprise the origination-and-dissolution factors here.

27. The origination-and-dissolution factors of the truths should be understood as the arising and passing of suffering, craving, and the path; the truth of cessation is not to be included in this contemplation since it has neither origination nor dissolution.

28. That is, the non-returning to the world of sensuality. This is the last stage before the attainment of the final goal of arahantship.

 
Năm Triền cái/Năm chướng ngại đó là ǵ? Đó là:
Tham dục (Kamacchanda)
Sân hận (Vyapada)
Hôn trầm (Thina-middha)
Trạo cử (Uddhacca-kukkucca)
Hoài nghi (Vicikiccha)
 

Thất giác chi (BẢY YẾU TỐ GIÁC NGỘ)
1. Chánh niệm (niệm giác phần):
2. Chọn lựa pháp môn (trạch pháp giác phần - phân biệt giác phần):
3. Kiên tŕ (tinh tấn giác phần):
4. Vui vẻ (hỉ giác phần):
5. Thư nhẹ (khinh an giác phần):
6. Tĩnh lặng (định giác phần):
7. Buông bỏ (xả giác phần):

BẢY CHUYỂN THỨC (thất chuyển thức) 

Theo Duy Thức Học, trong tám thức th́ thức a-lại-da là “căn bản thức”; bảy thức c̣n lại là mạt-na thức, ư thức, nhăn thức, nhĩ thức, tị thức, thiệt thức và thân thức, đều do căn bản thức chuyển biến và biểu hiện ra, cho nên bảy thức này được gọi là “chuyển thức”. 

BẢY PHÁP TÀI (thất pháp tài - thất thánh tài) 
“Pháp tài” là sự giàu có về tâm linh (khác với sự giàu có về vật chất), là của cải, vốn liếng tinh thần mà hành giả luôn luôn dùng làm hành trang trên suốt con đường tu học và phụng sự chúng sinh, cho đến khi đạt được quả vị giác ngộ. Có bảy thứ pháp tài:
1. Đức tin (tín tài).
2. Chí kiên tŕ (tinh tấn tài).
3. Giới luật (giới tài).
4. Tâm hổ thẹn (tàm quí tài).
5. Lắng nghe (văn tài).
6. Buông bỏ (xả tài).
7. Định và Tuệ (định tuệ tài).
Làm cho sự lăng quên, tâm loạn động dừng lại (chỉ) th́ định lực (định) phát sinh. Quán chiếu để thấy rơ (quán) chân tướng thực tại th́ trí tuệ (tuệ) phát sinh. Nói cách khác, “định tuệ” là kết quả có được từ “chỉ quán”;
 

   
  Post on YouTube:

**************
8:10 AM 4/17/2008
Only by renouncing our claim to discern a purpose immediately intelligible to us, and admitting the ultimate purpose to be beyond our ken, may we discern the sequence of experiences in religion
***************
 

   
List

Kinh Kẻ Bần Tiện (Vasalasuttam)
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhbantien.htm

KINH VIÊN GIÁC (THE SUTRA OF COMPLETE ENLIGHTENMENT )
kinhviengiac1
kinhviengiac2

Chuyện Tiền Thân Đức Phật The Jataka Sutra) Phẩm nữ giới
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/nugioi.htm

KINH NIỆM XỨ (Satipatthàna sutta)
The Four Arousings of Mindfulness
The Four frames of reference
The Four foundations of mindfulness.
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/tuniemxu.htm

Kahlil Gibran
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kahlilgibran.htm

Chuyện Tiền Thân Đức Phật The Jataka Sutra)

1) Phẩm nữ giới
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/nugioi.htm
NỮ NHÂN 1 | NỮ NHÂN 2 | NỮ NHÂN 3

2) Kẻ Ác
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/keac.htm

Trung Bộ Kinh
1)
trungbokinh1.htm ( Nikaya 1 thru 4)
2) trungbokinh2.htm ( Nikaya 5 thru 8)
3) trungbokinh3.htm ( Nikaya 9 thru 12)

6) trungbokinh6.htm ( Nikaya 35 thru 40)

KINH NIỆM XỨ (Satipatthàna sutta)
The Four Arousings of Mindfulness
The Four frames of reference
The Four foundations of mindfulness.
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/tuniemxu.htm

Thiền Sư Và Triết Gia
The Monk and the Philosopher:
Jean-Francois Revel, Matthieu Ricard,
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/thiensuvatrietgia.htm

YouTube: Video
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http://www.youtube.com/profile_videos?user=brainwashchinese 
http://www.youtube.com/profile_videos?user=stupidchina1 
http://www.youtube.com/profile_videos?user=stupid2china
 

A Quote by Siddhartha Gautama Buddha
http://blog.gaiam.com/quotes/authors/buddha

Kinh Lang Nghiem (audio)
http://www.phapgioi.com/tangthan/index.php/sach-noi-pg/kinh-dien-doc/871-kinh-lang-nghiem.html

KINH LĂNG NGHIÊM (Shurangama Sutra)

http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_2.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_3.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_4.htm
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_5.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_6.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_7.htm
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_8.htm 
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_9.htm
http://www.tranlich.com/phathoc/kinhlangnghiem_10.htm 

Kinh Hoa Nghiem (audio)
http://www.phapgioi.com/tangthan/index.php/sach-noi-pg/kinh-dien-doc.html

LICH COLLECTION

http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/Collection/
http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/chance_genius.htm
http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/war_peace.htm
http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/war_peace2.htm
http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/kethu.htm
http://www.lich-mc.com/vietnam/dalecarnegie.htm

 

 

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** Nguon goc chu nghia Cong San
http://www.lich-mc.com/81BCND/congnoo/nguongoccuachunghiacongsan1.htm

***For All Fallen Heroes In the Past, Now, and In the Future 
http://www.lich-mc.com/81BCND/congnoo/allfallenheroes.htm

** V́ sao chúng ta chống đối tất cả các họat động của VC
http://www.lich-mc.com/81BCND/download/visaochongdoivc.htm

 

 

 

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